Latest News

Snapping Turtle Eggs Hatching!

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On July 27, 2016 a nest of snapping turtle eggs was brought to Wild At Heart to be incubated. These turtles were found while a sandpit was being dug up by a construction team. The eggs have been incubating since July, and on August 24th, 2016, some of the eggs began to hatch! This is a huge success, as painted turtles are susceptible to population declines from threats like habitat destruction and pollution. They have a long-lived life history, so each new member of the population that can be re-introduced back to the wild is critical. Snapping turtles are a Species of Special Concern.

You can learn more about painted turtles, as well as painted and Blanding’s turtles, in Wild At Heart’s article for National Wildlife Week 2016.


Upcoming 2017 Calendar Sales

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Wild At Heart has had another very busy and successful summer of rehabilitating injured, sick, and orphaned wildlife. Our dedicated volunteers and interns have helped hundreds of animals, including small rodents, songbirds, large mammals, waterfowl, and everything in between! Newborn songbirds and rodents require special care, including feedings every 45-60 minutes for over 15 hours a day, stimulating, and special diets that change as the animal grows. While we are still taking in newborn wildlife, we are moving many of the animals to their outside cages where they will have less human contact, can play, and can practice hunting and climbing in a more natural setting. Many of these animals will be released in the coming weeks so they have enough time to find suitable habitat and food sources before the winter months arrive.

Figure 5

All of this work would not be possible without the dedication from volunteers and interns who help with daily animal care and fundraising. As a charitable non-profit, volunteer-based organization that promotes wildlife conservation, Wild At Heart relies heavily on community support. With this support, we are able to provide quality veterinary care and rehabilitation to injured, sick, or orphaned wildlife in Northern Ontario, with the goal of releasing rehabilitated animals back into the wild.


One of our main fundraisers is our annual calendar sale. These calendars feature photographs taken by our volunteers and interns, as well as educational write-ups about the animal in the picture. This year, we are asking volunteers to commit to selling 5 calendars each within their personal or work networks. These colourful and informative calendars make great gifts for the holidays, and will brighten up any office space or home area. Please contact our Education Coordinator, Monica at with your pledge to sell 5 calendars, raising monies to help us help them.

Community Partnerships Essential to WAH – earthdancers

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Wild At Heart is focused on providing wildlife with quality care and veterinary service to ensure they have the best chance at being released back into the wild. Animals may come in because they are injured, sick, or orphaned, and our dedicated volunteers work around the clock every day to help these animals recover and grow. Community partnerships are essential for Wild At Heart, as we are a non-for-profit that receives no funding. Throughout the year, we have high operation costs, including a mortgage, diet preparation, medication, and utilities. Monetary donations and volunteers giving their time have allowed Wild At Heart to be so successful.

The earthdancers have supported Wild At Heart for several years by donating some of their performance proceeds. The earthdancers is a non-profit contemporary dance organization run by students. For over 25 years, earthdancers has promoted environmental awareness and has raised funds to give to environmental causes through benefit performances held yearly.

The trials and tribulations of a wildlife centre

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To care for wild animals in Ontario requires quite stringent rules and policies that must be satisfied by the MNR prior to getting certification. Once a wildlife centre opens, there is a serious responsibility to ensure we do the right thing for the animals we care for. This includes providing the appropriate diets for all species, having trained people who are able to provide professional care and having proper facilities in terms of materials, space, ventilation, temperature, etc.

Looking after wildlife is not easy nor is it inexpensive and to top it all off, there is no funding.

Wild At Heart is able to provide the excellent services it does only because we do sometimes receive donations and we have passionate people who care about animals who are willing to donate their time. Having the right menu ingredients for different species is expensive (the food we require for one summer is thousands of dollars). We have various buildings that were often constructed with donated materials and built by volunteers… we pay taxes, utilities just like everyone else.

I have been a veterinarian for over 38 years and I have treated wildlife for 37 of those years. I am a volunteer and have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars helping wildlife. Why would I and so many other volunteers do this? Because we care about animals and we care about the environment. Animals are a critical part of ecosystems and healthy ecosystems are a critical necessity to the health of the world and the people in it. Besides, as part of a moral society, we owe a service to the animals we have often hurt or injured because of roads, construction, farms and global warming. Animals are sentient beings. They have feelings and are capable of feeling pain and suffering. We need to do what we can to help.

I have seen a lot of great comments and Thank You’s on our Facebook and when we give presentations to schools and others. But I have also seen a couple of negative comments having to do with an animal dying in our care or that we are full and cannot take more young raccoons or birds and that we sometimes have to humanely euthanize animals.

As far as I know there is not a wildlife centre,, veterinary hospital or human hospital that does not experience death. In the case of wild animals, we often do not have the diagnostics that other hospitals have in order to get blood results, x rays, ECG, MRI, etc. Wildlife centres cannot afford this equipment. Although with experience, we can get pretty good with picking up on medical issues and proper treatments. I have taken the time to get educated in various areas that are important to wildlife: courses for turtles, raptors and specialized techniques. Treating wild animals is not just like treating domestic animals and requires special efforts and training even after veterinary school. The other thing that often happens is that people can bring animals to us when they are sick or have been fed the wrong foods although they may not look sick at that moment. Baby wild animals can pass away very quickly often with very little in the way of symptoms. We cannot be successful in all cases. Just as the person who takes the time to bring in an animal, the people who volunteer are also very upset when we cannot save every animal. All we can do is give it our best effort , which often is enough.

Death is a common occurrence when you deal with injured, orphaned and sick wild animals but it is never easy for the people who devote countless hours in efforts to save every animal they can. Baby animals need to be fed, cleaned and stimulated to urinate and defecate every 2 – 4 hours. Now multiply this by 150 animals needing care at one time and you get an idea of the amount of time caretakers spend with every animal at Wild At Heart.

As a wildlife centre, we cannot save every animal and we cannot take in every animal that needs to be cared for.  As I mentioned, we have to supply appropriate housing and care for every animal we admit. For example, we have 46 raccoons and when they are 12 weeks of age, we will need over 1500 sq. ft. in outdoor housing. We have a bit less than that available for raccoons. We cannot take in any more raccoons otherwise we would be contravening the MNR requirements and we would not be able to provide what the raccoons need for a successful release. Just like every other wildlife centre that I know of in Ontario, we are all full and cannot take any more raccoons – we are also full now with respect to baby songbirds for the same reasons. We must now make the difficult decision of humanely euthanizing some animals at this time of year. This is not an easy decision but the other choice would be to let them die a slow death in the wild. Sometimes, there is no easy way to tell a person who shows up with an animal that we are not able to care for it. Often the person at the door also feels very bad about telling this to a person and may not do it as well as an experienced person. We do not have a designated person to do this although if people phone in first, I always try and call them to alert them. After I talk to the people involved, they generally understand that we can only do our best.

I would like to conclude by letting everyone know that we always welcome volunteers who would like to help in this fantastic voyage. By getting this first hand experience, it will go a long way to develop understanding of what we do and why we do it.


Dr. Rod Jouppi


Wild At Heart

Wild At Heart Comedy Night 2016

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On June 3rd, 2016, Wild At Heart held our 7th Annual Wild About Comedy dinner at the Sixth Avenue Golf & Country Club. It was a tremendous success! We were sold out and had a new HIGH for our proceeds brought in. A sincere thank you to all guests who bought tickets, our fabulous entertainment Mark Crocker (ventriloquist extraordinaire!), the great jazz of Rosewood Songs (Craig and Marshall), and of course, all of our sponsors, volunteers and auction item donors.


Image: Entertainment from Rosewood Songs.


Freelandt Caldwell Reilly LLP, Line Villeneuve, Orion Printing, Rosewood Songs, Sixth Avenue Golf & Country Club, Southview Growers, Todd Robson, Travelway Inn, United Link Insurance Brokers Ltd. – Todd LaRoque, Karen Falldien-Yawney, ProSonic Ltd. – David Peters, TD Bank, Gordon Food Services

The Sixth Avenue Golf & Country Club was our platinum sponsor this year, pledging more than $5,000.00 off the cost of their venue.


Images: Our venue was beautiful, thanks to Sixth Avenue Golf & Country Club and all of their wonderful staff!


Dyanmic Eventz, Susan Bonneville, Rea-Ann Goegan, Mary Jouppi, Monica Jouppi, Rod Jouppi, Maxine Mayotte, Lisa McIvor, Judy Miller, Victoria Murphy, Rebecca Robinson, Marina Romenco, Emily Bell, Sam Hunter, Janet Young, Flory Bell, Emily Trottier, Maureen Kealy, Monica Seidel, Natashka Healey, Amber Hawkins


Image: President, Dr. Rod Jouppi message during Comedy Night.

Auction Item Donors:

Alex Fillion Photography, Anita Lamoureux, Anne McBain, ARC Climbing Yoga Fitness, Ashley’s Kitchen, Cheryl Lawrence, City Welding, Colette Theriault, Country Quilter, Debra Ireland, Di Gusto Restaurant, Don Johnston, Dynamic Eventz, El Mercado, Freskiw’s, Gaetanne Gladu, Glama Gals Tween Spa, Judy Miller, Karen Yawney – Dionysus Wines, Kim Creasey, Lisa McIvor, Loralie White – Forty-Creek, Notre Dame Boys, Nu-Look Paint & Wallpaper, Pat Bedard Art, Pixatron, Ramakko’s, Rea-Ann Goegan, Rona Hardware – Val Caron, Samantha Kuula, Scholar’s Choice, Sharon Kennie, Stephanie Mete, Tamara Hyland – Skincerity, Ten Point Archery, Tina Ryan, Treasury Wine Estates, Victoria Murphy, Vrab’s Independent Grocer


Images: The silent and live auctions were a huge success because of our dedicated fundraising volunteers and attendees – thank you!

We presently have well over 150 baby animals that are being cared for and requiring feeding and care every 2 or 3 hours. Soon they will be over 3 months of age and will be moved into larger outdoor enclosures with a daily menu of great foods, exercise programs, and training on how to obtain their own food items in the great outdoors. They will be released in August/September to give them a good chance to acclimatize to their new environment before fall and winter – summers go by so quickly in wildlife rehab centres!


If any people are interested, Wild At Heart always needs volunteers. Interests may include animal care, fundraising, construction/maintenance, and education. Please contact Monica, our Education Coordinator at 705 692 4478. Wild At Heart is the only wildlife rehab centre in our area and we are very grassroots focused. We do not receive any payments as an organization, and rely on our volunteers and donors.


We are now staring to work on our annual calendar and you will see us at some of Sudbury’s summer festivals and outdoor events sharing our awareness of wildlife and environmental issues. Let us know if you want to help!



Raise Ur Paw $500 Donation

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Thank you to Raise Ur Paw for their generous donation of $500 to Wild At Heart! Community partnerships are central to Wild At Heart – we are a volunteer-based organization that receives no government funding. Our mandate is to rehabilitate Northern Ontario’s wildlife, while also raising awareness about wildlife-human interaction. This monetary donation will be very useful during our busy summer season!
If you would like to become involved with Wild At Heart, please visit our website  to learn how to become a volunteer, or make a donation.


More about Raise Ur Paw:

R.U.P (RAISE UR PAW) is a cause dedicated to raising awareness against animal abuse and cruelty,  we wish to provide effective means for raising the awareness  – and work hard to help fight the good fight; standing up for animal rights and welfare.

We work hard at educating the public, research, protest campaigns – and reach our “paws” to raise not only the adoption rates in shelters, but to also fight for the animal rights to life – dedicated to stop the euthanization of healthy and treatable animals within shelters.

Leah’s 7th Birthday Gift

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Instead of asking for gifts for her 7th birthday, Leah asked for money donations for Wild At Heart. Thank you for helping the animals, who all need specialized diets and medical attention while rehabilitating at our Centre! Monies donated to the Centre go towards buying species-specific formula powders, medical supplies, cleaning supplies, pellets and seed mixes, fruits and vegetables, meat, and many more items. Donations from the community are fundamental for Wild At Heart, as we do not receive any government funding, and are a volunteer-based organization.

To donate to Wild At Heart and help us rehabilitate wildlife, please visit here or visit the Centre in person at 95 White Road in Lively.

Press Release – Wild About Comedy Night

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April 25, 2016

Tickets now on sale for 7th Annual Wild About Comedy Night

In Support of Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre –

Sudbury – Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre presents the 7th Annual Wild About Comedy Night. The popular annual event in support of the wildlife centre will take place on Friday, June 3rd, 2016 at Sixth Avenue Golf & Country Club in Lively. The featured talent is comedic ventriloquist Mark Crocker! With over three decades of entertaining audiences around the world, Mark’s special blend of comedy delivered through ventriloquism creates a wonderful mixture of old versus new.

Attendees will enjoy a delectable three-course dinner, as well as silent and live auctions throughout the evening. Auction items include artwork, experiences, merchandise, and gift packages.

Doors open at 6:00 p.m. for cocktails and the silent auction, and dinner will begin at 7:00 p.m. with the comedy show following. Cash bar. Ages 18+

Tickets are $60 each, $450 for a table of 8.

Advance tickets are available: online at, at Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre (95 White Road, Lively), the Walden Animal Hospital (11 White Rd, Lively),  or call 705-692-4478 to charge by phone.

Wild About Comedy Night is supported by: Orion Printing.

Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre is a not-for-profit organization and a registered charity located in Lively, Ontario. For over 30 years, in association with the Walden Animal Hospital, the Centre has been providing veterinary care and treatment to orphaned, injured, or sick wild animals so that they may return to the wild. Our dedicated volunteers provide daily care for over 900 animals that we receive annually – everything from songbirds to moose. Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre is the only registered wildlife rehabilitation centre of its size in Northern Ontario (north of Parry Sound).

For more information, please call (705) 692-4478 or visit

Click here to download a promotional photo of Mark.

Media Contact:
Monica Seidel
Education Coordinator
Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre

Summer Volunteer Intern Positions Available

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Wild At Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre is now looking for interns from May – July 2016.


Wild at Heart Wildlife Refuge Centre is a licensed wildlife rehabilitation centre dedicated to the care of a wide variety of orphaned, sick, and injured wildlife. The centre admits over 750 animals per year and works closely with a team of veterinarians. Wild at Heart is located in a small northern Ontario town, Lively, 15 km west of Sudbury, with access to public transportation. We offer a friendly fast paced learning opportunity in a climate controlled work environment. Facilities include access to a kitchenette, wireless Internet, and limited free on-­site accommodations. Food costs are not included.

Internship Duration:

All intern positions are voluntary and full time. Position duration varies from a minimum of 2 months up to maximum of 6 months, 5 days per week, 40-­50 hours per week. Schedule is rotating and includes days, evenings and weekends. Preference will be given to intern applicants dedicated to internships longer than 2 months. Internships for the busy season will run anywhere between April to September.


Position Descriptions:

Animal care Internship:

The successful interns will gain valuable practical experience in wildlife rehabilitation techniques while caring for a variety of native mammals, birds, and reptiles. Duties include animal admissions, diet preparation and feeding, cage cleaning, medication administration, wound management, and other daily care needs of the wildlife patients. No experience is necessary, but commitment to the duration of the internship is required.

Animal Care Leader Internship:

Intern leaders are involved in all of the above, with more focus on management of a particular species such as squirrels, raccoons, or songbirds. Leaders would be responsible for their assigned species, including monitoring health of individuals and assisting in mentoring of other interns and volunteers. Experience in wildlife rehabilitation techniques is advisable. The minimum length of the animal care leader internship is 4 months or longer, depending on the species of interest.


* At least 18 years of age

* Commitment to the length of the internship

* Must be reliable, very dedicated, able to multi­-task, and commit to work hours according to the needs of the animals.

* Also able to perform repetitive, physically demanding tasks in a fast-paced, team-oriented environment.

* Criminal background check may be requested.


We provide on-site accommodations, but these are limited and are reserved quickly. There is a kitchen, sitting area, two washrooms as well as shared bedrooms. Please state on your application whether or not you would like to be considered for accommodations.

To Apply: Please email resume with cover letter explaining why you are interested in joining our rehabilitation team (please include start and end dates available and specify which position you are applying for) to:


Turtle Awareness Campaign – National Wildlife Week

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For National Wildlife Week, Wild At Heart has been highlighting different animals in our care each day of the week on Facebook. For the last 3 days of the week, we are going to launch a turtle awareness campaign. Typically Wild At Heart gets 3 types of turtles in: painted turtles, Blanding’s turtles, and snapping turtles. We would like to raise awareness about these types of turtles, specifically: their natural history and identifiable traits, why Wild At Heart is seeing an increase in turtles brought in that have been hit by cars, and what you can do on an individual and community level to help turtles. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday (April 14th, 15th, 16th), more information will be added to this article highlighting a different topic surrounding turtles and their fight for survival in a growing urbanized environment.

Information written by senior animal care intern Nele van Daele and Wild At Heart staff member Monica Seidel. Photographs by interns Nele van Daele and Sarah Townson.

Figure 1: Total Number of Turtle Road Victims Brought to Wild At Heart from 2008 to 2015 (data taken from Wild At Heart animal care records).

Turtles are long-living species with a late sexual maturity which makes it very difficult to recover from increased adult death. In addition to this, they do not have the coping mechanism to produce more eggs as a response to higher mortality rates. So every adult turtle that dies on the road significantly contributes to the decline of the species in the area (Beaudry, deMaynadier, & Hunter Jr., 2008; DeCatanzaro & Chow-Fraser, 2010; Millar & Blouin-Demers, 2012).

Increased road construction and the turtle’s need to cross roads on their search for a nest often ends in severe injuries. By rehabilitating these road victims, Wild At Heart contributes to the recovery and conservation of these species. By raising awareness to this problem we hope that everyone will contribute to the conservation of these species.

The difference between Blanding’s, snapping and painted turtles

Blanding’s turtles (Emydoidea blandingii) are listed as endangered in Nova Scotia and threatened in Ontario and Quebec. Endangered species are wildlife species who are facing imminent extirpation (extinct only in a certain area) or extinction (gone from the entire planet) (COSEWIC, COSEWIC Assessment Process, Categories and Guidelines, 2015). Wildlife species that are likely to become endangered, if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to its extirpation or extinction, are considered threatened (COSEWIC, COSEWIC Assessment Process, Categories and Guidelines, 2015).

Blanding’s turtles can be easily recognized by their yellow throat and chin (Figure 2). Their domed shell or carapace is black to brown with yellow spots and lines, and the bottom shell or plastron (Figure 2) is yellow with black spots. They are about 15 to 27cm in length, weigh between 1 and 1.5 kilogram and they become 75 years or even more (COSEWIC, 2005; MNR, 2011; CWF, 2014; MNR, 2014; Government Of Ontario, 2016).

 Figure 2a  Figure 2b
 Figure 2c
Figure 2: Photos of a Blanding’s turtle recovering at Wild at Heart (2016). Facial features (left), plastron (top right), and carapace (bottom right).

Blanding’s turtles mature between the ages of 15-25. Females lay eggs every 2 to 3 years and the clutch can consist of 3 to 19 eggs. They hibernate from October to April at the bottom of wetlands (MNR, 2011; CWF, Blanding’s turtle: species information, 2014; MNR, 2014).

Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) are the largest freshwater turtles in Canada. Their carapace is black, olive, or brown colored. They spend most of their time underwater, laying on the bottom of a water body or buried in the mud. Therefore they are typically covered in algae (Figure 3). The tails of snapping turtles are quite long and have triangular crests. Their size can variate between 30 to 50 centimeters, with the females are slightly smaller than the males.

The plastron is grey or yellow and is quite small compared to other turtles. Because of their small plastron they cannot completely pull in their limbs, neck, or tail. Therefore they are more likely to bite when they feel threatened. Their neck is quite long and they have strong jaws (Figure 4), so always be very cautious when handling snapping turtles (Ernst & Lovich, 2009; MNR, 2014; CWF, 2016; Government Of Ontario, 2016). Information on how to handle turtles will follow later on in this document.

Snapping turtles are currently listed as a species of special concern. Species of special concern are wildlife species that may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats (COSEWIC, COSEWIC Assessment Process, Categories and Guidelines, 2015; Government Of Ontario, 2016). Snapping turtles reach sexual maturity between the ages of 15-20 (MNR, 2014; CWF, 2016).

 Figure 3  Figure 4
Figure 3: Snapping turtle recovering at WAH (2016). Algae can be seen at the back and along the edges of the carapace. Pink marks on carapace are from a road injury. Figure 4: Facial features of a snapping turtle recovering at WAH (2016). Snapping turtles have a powerful bite because of their strong jaw muscles.

Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) are the turtles that can often be seen basking on logs. Their carapace (Figure 5) is olive to black colored with red to dark orange markings on the sides. The plastron is yellow with large dark irregular shapes along the midline. They have red stripes on their legs and yellow stripes on their head and neck (Figure 6). The size of painted turtles varies between 9 and 18 centimeters.

They reach sexual maturity around 5 years of age. The clutch contains from 3 to 14 eggs. Females nest from late May to early July (Ontario Nature, 2016; KTTC, 2016; Toronto Zoo, 2016).


 Figure 5  Figure 6
Figure 5: Cracked carapace of a painted turtle recovering at WAH (2016). Figure 6: Painted turtle recovering at WAH (2016).


All of these turtles are primarily threatened by road mortality and habitat loss. They nest in gravelly areas making roadsides an ideal location to nest, but also putting them at risk of injury from car collisions. In order to find suitable nesting site, female turtles also need to cross roads, further putting them at risk. Female Blanding’s turtles often travel up to 2.5 kilometers to find a nesting site, while snapping turtles can travel up to 10 kilometers (Beaudry, deMaynadier, & Hunter Jr., 2008; DeCatanzaro & Chow-Fraser, 2010; Millar & Blouin-Demers, 2012).

How do turtles hibernate?

Hibernation is a mechanism to cope through adverse winters in cold climates. Turtles go into an induced sleep during the winter months, and re-emerge in the spring when ideal growth and feeding conditions return. In November and December, turtles become “…very resistant to the penetration of ice into body compartments from surrounding soil, and the turtles also purge their bodies of catalysts for the formation of ice” (Packard & Packard, 2003). These changes allow them to survive in colder temperatures because water cannot organize into the crystalline phase to freeze.

All turtles must have sufficient stores to survive a long hibernation period, but also have energy when they awake from hibernation to find food and fend off predators. This fitness usually is linked to body mass in the spring (Muir, et al., 2013). The typical cold temperature at the bottom of water bodies (as seen in Northern Ontario for example) allow for the turtles to use up the stores slowly.

Therefore, turtles have to thrive through many adverse conditions to make it through the winter. This includes: cold temperatures, anoxic soil conditions, moisture content in the soil, possible freezing of the skin and skeletal musculature (but not body core), excess lactic acid build-up, and awakening from the hibernation and readily finding food while also avoiding predation. This abundance of factors is another reason that rehabilitation is so critical at Wild At Heart, because the success rate of each clutch of eggs each year is so low through hibernation.

Painted and Blanding’s turtles use finite energy reserves, not an antifreeze, to survive hibernation through their first winter. They hatch in the late summer months, but do not emerge from the nest until after their first winter is over (Packard & Packard, 2003; Storey, 2006) (see Figure 8). They survive because of the remains of a large internalized yolk sac (Storey, 2006). This strategy is beneficial because the new hatchlings avoid predation and harsh temperature conditions, and also can rapidly grow when ideal conditions return in the spring/summer. Egg size variation is dependent on both fall and spring temperatures because the turtles do not emerge from the nest until the spring (Rollison, et al., 2012).

One study found that hatchling painted turtles used an average of 0.39 kJ/g when put in a simulated 4°C wintering environment (Muir, et. al, 2013). A decrease in carapace length (0.2mm) and liver size (up to 66%) was observed in turtles hibernating in warm-winter conditions (15°C), as well as a loss in body mass of 16% (compared to 5.3% for the 4°C group) (Muir, et al., 2013). Painted turtles have skin that seems to resist the transmission of ice into their bodies, meaning they can survive sub-zero temperatures much better than Blanding’s or snapping turtles (Packard, G. C., et al., 1993). Another study found that Blanding’s turtle hatchlings survived 3 days at -3.5°C, giving them a “good” freezing tolerance (Storey, 2006). The same study found snapping turtles had a “poor” freezing tolerance, with just a 60% survival at -2.5°C after 3 days.

Snapping turtles usually emerge from nests in late summer to early autumn (Figure 8). They then move on the land to a suitable permanent water body to hibernate. The majority of turtles that do not leave the nest before winter comes die because they come into contact with the ice in the soil and there is irreversible damage to the cells. Some snapping turtles can survive a moderate stress associated with some of their bodily fluids freezing, however, all of the bodily fluids cannot freeze, and the fluids that do freeze cannot freeze for too long (Packard, et al., 1993). Fall temperatures play a factor on egg size variation for snapping turtles because that is when follicular development occurs (Rollison, et al., 2012).

Figure 8

Figure 8: Estimated timing of the follicular cycle of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta), and painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Dashed arrows and light-framed boxes refer to the direct effect of temperature on follicular development (Source: Rollison, et al., 2012).



Ashley, E., & Robinson, J. (1996). Road mortality of amphibians, reptiles and other wildlife on the Long Point causeway, Lake Erie, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 403-412.

Beaudry, f., deMaynadier, P., & Hunter Jr., M. (2008). Identifying road mortality threat at multiple spatial scales for semi-aquatic turtles. Biological Conservation, 2550-2563.

COSEWIC. (2005). Assessment and update status report on the Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) in Canada. Ontario, Canada: COSEWIC.

COSEWIC. (2015). COSEWIC Assessment Process, Categories and Guidelines. COSEWIC.

CWF. (2014). Blanding’s turtle: species information. Kanata, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Wildlife Foundation.

CWF. (2016). Snapping turtle: species information. Kanata, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Wildlife Foundation.

DeCatanzaro, R., & Chow-Fraser, P. (2010). Relationship of road density and marsh condition to turtle assemblage characteristics in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 357-365.

Ernst, C., & Lovich, J. (2009). Snapping Turtles. In C. Ernst, & J. Lovich, Turtles of the United States and Canada (pp. 113-137). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

FDA. (2014). Pet Turtles: Cute But Contaminated with Salmonella. U.S.: FDA Consumer Health Information.

Government Of Ontario. (2016). Species at risk in Ontario List. Opgehaald van Government of Ontario:

KTTC. (2016). Painted turtle. Opgehaald van Kawartha Turtle Trauma Centre:

Millar, C. S., & Blouin-Demers, G. (2012). Habitat suitability modelling for species at risk is sensitive to algorithmand scale: a case study of Blanding’s turtle, Emydoidea blandingii, in Ontario, Canada. Journal for Nature Conservation, 18-29.

MNR. (2011). Ontario Species at Risk: Quick Reference Guide. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada: Ministry of natural resources.

MNR. (2014). Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). Ontario: Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.

MNR. (2014). Ontario Species at Risk Handling Manual: For Endangered Species Act Authorization Holders. Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.

MNR. (2014). Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Ontario, Canada: Ministry of Natural Resources.

Ontario Nature. (2016). Painted turtle. Accessed from Ontario Nature:

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